Karaman Sheep

Zekeriya Özüdoğru, Dervis Özdemir, Bumin Emre Teke,  Mesut Kirbas3 In this study, it was aimed to determine the craniometric measurements of the skull...

Zekeriya Özüdoğru, Dervis Özdemir, Bumin Emre Teke,  Mesut Kirbas3

In this study, it was aimed to determine the craniometric measurements of the skull of the South  Karaman sheep breed and to reveal the differences between them and other sheep breeds. The skull length was 238.37±4.18, the frontal width (ectorbitale – ectorbitale), which is the widest part of the skull was 115.75 ± 4.45. The distance between the supraorbitales was determined to be 50.01±3.94. There is a strong negative correlation between L9 (akrokranio – bregma) and L14 (greatest length of the lacrimal (most lateral point of the lacrimal – the most oral point of the lacrimo-maxillary suture) and positive correlation was found among other features. As a result, it is thought that the difference between the craniometric values of the South Karaman sheep, which are accepted as the native breeds of Turkey in the study, and other sheep breeds, depending on the skull morphology, may be due to the breed of the sheep. 

The size of the skull can provide valuable information about changes in the breed over time [5, 8]. Therefore, it was noted that the differences in races were found in the head of the animal, and it was reported that the differences in skull level defined a species more than those found in the rest of the skeleton [2, 22]. Thus, craniocephalic topography provides topometric data that facilitates sex discrimination [14]. Morphometric analysis is a preferred method in zoo archaeological studies, osteological evaluations, to reveal shape differences due to internal and external factors and differences between sexes [4].

Many authors have used the geometric dimensions of the skull bones of small ruminants for species identification [11, 23, 25, 27]. Kaymakci [12] states that there are many types of Akkaraman race and the variety called “South Karaman” is found in the foothills of the Taurus Mountains facing Central Anatolia. He reported that the breed, which is grown in the Taurus Mountains, is highly productive in terms of meat 138 and milk, and is among the most preferred species in aquaculture, with its resistance to environmental conditions.

The Southern Karaman Sheep are small in general appearance, have white, gray, brown and mottled colours, the males are horned, the females are generally hornless and have a fat tail [18, 21]. To date, some studies on craniometric measurements Tuj and morkaraman sheep [19], Hemşin sheep [6], Suffolk Down Sheep [3], Kosava’s Barkhoka sheep) [7], Zell sheep [13] although no craniometric studies were found on the South Karaman sheep breed, this study was concerned with the head structure of Turkey’s native sheep breed,
which is common in the Mediterranean region. 

Materials and Methods

In the study, eight South Karaman sheep (male) skulls, ranging in weight from 38-56 kg, obtained from Bahri Dagdas International Agricultural Research Institute were used. After the animals were duly slaughtered, the skulls were subjected to maceration. Measurements were made using Mitutoyo digital caliper from 46 points on the skull of the South Karaman sheep. The anatomical terms used were based on Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria [16]. This study was approved by the Experimental Animals Ethics Committee of Atatürk University (Ethical number: 23.10.2015, 8/148). 

The following measurements by using definitions of measuring points 17, 19, 20] on the cranium were made:

L1. profile length (akrokranion – prosthion),
L2. condylobasal length,
L3. basal length (basion – prosthion),
L4. short skull length (basion premolare),
L5. premolare – prosthion,
L6. ossa cranii length (basion – nasion),
L7. ossa faciei length (nasion prosthion),
L8. median frontal length (akrokranion – nasion),
L9. akrokranion - bregma,
L10. frontal length (bregma – nasion),
L11. upper ossa cranii length: Akrokranion – supraorbitale,
L12. facial length (supraorbitale – prosthion),
L13. Akrokranion-infraorbitale of one side,
L14. greatest length of the lacrimal (most lateral point of the lacrimal – the most
oral point of the lacrimo-maxillary suture,
L15. greatest length of the nasals (nasion-rhinion),
L16. short lateral facial length (entorbitale – prosthion),
L17. from the aboral border of one occipital condyle to the infraorbitale of the
same side,
L18. dental length (postdentale – prosthion),
L19. oral palatal length (palatinoorale – prosthion),
139
L20. lateral length of the premaxilla (nasointermaxillare – prosthion),
L21 length of the cheektooth row (measured along the alveoli),
L22. length of the molar row (measured along the alveoli on the buccal side),
L23. length of the premolar row (measured along the alveoli on the buccal side),
L24. zygomatic width (the distance between two zygomatic arches),
L25. greatest inner length of the orbit (ectorbitale – entorbitale),
L26. greatest inner height of the orbit (measured in the same way as measurement),
L27. greatest mastoid breadth (otion – otion),
L28. greatest breadth of the occipital condyles,
L29. greatest breadth at the bases of the paraoccipital processes,
L30. greatest breadth of the foramen magnum,
L31. eight of the foramen magnum (basion – opisthion),
L32. least breadth of parietal: Least breadth between the temporal lines,
L33. greatest ossa cranii Breadth-Greatest breadth of the braincase (euryon – euryon),
L34. least breadth between the orbits (entorbitale – entorbitale),
L35. greatest breadth across the orbit-greatest frontal breadth-greatest breadth of
skull (ectorbitale – ectorbitale),
L36. facial breadth (breadth across the facial tuberosities),
L37. greatest breadth across the nasals,
L38. greatest breadth across the premaxillae,
L39. greatest palatal breadth (measured across the outer borders of the alveoli),
L40. the distance from infraorbital foramen to facial tuberosity,
L41. the distance from facial tuberosity to root of alveolar tooth,
L42. distance between first premolar teeth,
L43. distance between first molar teeth,
L44. distance between the last molar teeth,
L45. distance from orbital arcus,
L46. supraorbital foramina distance.
Craniofacial indices [19]:
I1. Nasal index: greatest breadth across the nasals x 100/ greatest length of the
nasals
I2. Facial index: zygomatic width x 100/viscerocranial length
I3. Ossa cranii index: maximum width of the ossa cranii x 100/Ossa cranii length
I4. Basal index: maximum width of ossa cranii x100/basal length
I5. Skull index: zygomatic width x 100/skull length
I6. Orbital index: Greatest inner height of the orbit x100/ Greatest inner length of
the orbit
I7. Foramen Magnum index: the height of the foramen magnum× 100/the width
of the foramen magnum

Statistical analysis
The mean values, standard deviations, coefficient of variations and craniofacial indices were calculated with SPSS (version 22). Independent samples t test was used for pvalues. The values determined are indicated in Tables 1-4.

18 Tem 2022 - 09:41 - Kültür & Sanat --- Okunma

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